The correct answer is A. Reduced risk
Caffeine consumption (including daily consumption of coffee, tea, cola, cocoa and chocolate) in individuals with a mean age of 56 years was not associated with increased risk of AF or atrial flutter. Results are from an observational study from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study of 47,949 individuals followed for 5.7 years.3 However, caffeine significantly increased blood pressure, which has been associated with increased risk of AF. Another study4 from a meta-analysis of 228,465 participants from Sweden and Denmark followed for 25 years indicated that habitual caffeine consumption suggested an association with reduced AF risk. This could be due, in part, to theoretical antifibrotic effects of caffeine and attenuation of the adrenergic effects of caffeine related to habitual use.