The correct answers are A. Reduced risk and C. No known association
In previous studies, chocolate consumption has been associated with lower as well as neutral risk of incident AF. Most recently published and getting a lot of publicity is a large analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Study,5 which reported that consuming 1-3 servings of dark chocolate per month decreased risk for AF by 10% compared with eating < 1 serving. However, the study is prone to the challenges of an observational study, and there was some suggestion that chocolate consumers are healthier with better lifestyle habits. In another study6 of 18, 819 male physicians with self-reported chocolate consumption and mean follow-up of 9 years, there was no evidence of association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF. It is plausible, although there is a paucity of data, that excess chocolate consumption may also be linked to a higher risk of incident AF, given its association with incident diabetes.