All of the following have been associated with long-term proton pump inhibitor use except . . . ?
A. Magnesium deficiency
C. Clostridium difficile
D. Gastric cancer
Correct answer: D
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been associated with magnesium deficiency, pneumonia, and Clostridium difficile infection. Although PPIs increase gastrin levels, which can lead to enterochormaffin-like cells hyperplasia, there has been no association between PPI use and gastric carcinoids or other cancers.