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Breastfeeding is the natural, physiologic way of feeding infants and young children milk, and human milk is the milk made specifically for human infants.

Cord blood stem cells (CBSCs) first appear in the yolk sac of the human embryo, and then migrate to the liver as the fetus develops. The fetal liver continues to produce blood cells until shortly after birth, when the bone marrow becomes the primary factory of blood.

A substance found in the urine of pregnant women can be measured to predict the later development of preeclampsia, according to research from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health.

A healthy placenta is the single most important factor in producing a healthy baby. The placenta, which is in fact part of the fetus, is critical for all aspects of pregnancy from implantation to delivery. As early as three days after fertilization, the trophoblasts, the major cell type of the placenta, begin to make human chorionic gonadotropin, a hormone which insures that the endometrium will be receptive to the implanting embryo.

In contrast to the pattern seen with singleton births, twins born to older mothers do not appear to have a greater risk of birth complications than do twins born to younger mothers, according to a recent study by researchers at the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) and the University of Kansas.

As a midwife, I am often privileged to witness displays of human emotion that seem to occur exclusively within the context of birth. There are few other transitions of life that elicit the sort of emotion, be it positive or negative, that childbirth does. At every birth I attend there is always a memorable moment, often subtle and intimate, little insights into human nature that I tuck away in my subconscious.

Oral and topical pre-exposure prophylaxes are successful in preventing the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus via sexual intercourse, according to a presentation at the 13th European AIDS Conference of the European AIDS Clinical Society (EACS). Established in 1991, the EACS is a leading scientific society composed of clinicians that aims to educate, train and compose guidelines for those clinicians in Europe treating patients with HIV and AIDS.


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