Over the past 20 years, the treatment armamentarium for diabetes has greatly expanded: 8 different classes of non-insulin drugs and 8 different types of insulin are now available. The newer classes of agents include disaccharidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, meglitinides, glucagonlike peptide analogs, and dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitors.
I read with interest Dr Gregory Rutecki's response to a reader's comments (CONSULTANT, February 2007), in which he emphasized the need for early screening and treatment of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and ß-blockers are the cornerstone of heart failure medical therapy; unless contraindicated, start these agents as soon as possible after volume status has been optimized. Aldosterone receptor antagonists, angiotensin-receptor blockers, and a fixed-dose combination of hydralazine and isosorbide dinitrate (the last recommended especially for African Americans) can be used as add-on therapy. Prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillators reduce long-term mortality in symptomatic patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 35% or less. Cardiac resynchronization therapy improves symptoms and ventricular remodeling in some patients; indications include wide (more than 20 milliseconds) QRS complex on ECG, impaired LVEF (35% or less), and advanced heart failure symptoms (NYHA classes III and IV) despite optimal drug therapy. Measurement of natriuretic peptides and impedance cardiography both show promise for monitoring patients with heart failure and for guiding therapy, but definitive data to justify their routine use are still lacking.
PHILADELPHIA -- Not only did prophylactic antibiotic therapy fail to reduce recurrence of urinary tract infections in young children, it was linked to an increase in resistant infections.
This 33-year-old Guatemalan man presented to a medical mission camp with generalized bilateral knee pain and inability to extend his leg without pain. The 4-ft 11-in patient had mild scoliosis, increased elbow carrying angles, and hypoplastic patellae. He had had dysplasia of the nails with triangular lunulae since birth. The fingernails were absent on the first and second digits of both hands. His mother had had similar physical findings. He had not had regular medical care.
At a routine blood pressure check, a 63-year-old woman has 2 readings of 165/100 mm Hg. The patient has had essential hypertension since age 41 years. For more than a decade, it was easily controlled with a b-blocker; however, in recent years, her blood pressure has been more variable, with occasional readings of higher than 150/90 mm Hg.
An 82-year-old man is seen for annual physical examination in the nursing home. He has resided there for 1 year because of the aggregate impact of multiple medical problems including, most prominently, laryngeal swallowing dysfunction associated with vocal cord paralysis.
CHICAGO -- Type 2 diabetes patients with chronic kidney disease may get at least some moderate cardiovascular risk reduction from pioglitazone (Actos), researchers found.
ROYAL OAK, Mich. -- Kidney disease and cardiovascular disease are intertwined risk factors, each contributing to the other, according to two studies.
A 50-year-old man with end-stage renal disease secondary to long-standing hypertension had an elevated hematocrit and progressively increasing hemoglobin levels. For the past 7 years, he had been receiving hemodialysis 3 times a week. He denied headache, flushing, easy bruising, bleeding, nausea, vomiting, chest pain, dyspnea, and other symptoms. He was not receiving exogenous erythropoietin.