Answer: A. BPH. According to a 2014 literature review, the top 5 most prevalent comorbidities among patients with COPD are hyperlipidemia (~46%), hypertension (~ 43%), anxiety (~38%), BPH (~30%), and ischemic heart disease (~28%). The prevalence of heart failure, GERD, and lung cancer in COPD patients is approximately 18%, 12%, and 9%, respectively.1
2. Which of the following is a major cause of death in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD?
A. Substance abuse
B. Lung cancer
C. Chronic kidney disease
D. Prostate cancer
1. Smith MC, Wrobel JP. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:871-888.
2. Negewo NA, Gibson PG, McDonald VM. COPD and its comorbidities: Impact, measurement and mechanisms. Respirology. 2015;20:1160-1171.
3. Hillas G, Perlikos F, Tsiligianni I, Tzanakis N. Managing comorbidities in COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:95-109.