Answer: B. Lung cancer. Lung cancer and cardiovascular disease are the major causes of death in early stage COPD. Reduced lung function from COPD can limit the operability and radiation therapy options in lung cancer. Individuals with COPD are at increased risk for lung cancer, which may be related to smoking, chronic inflammation, and genetic susceptibility. Respiratory failure is the major cause of death in late-stage COPD.1
3. Which of the following is NOT a tool developed specifically to assess comorbidity and its impact on prognosis in COPD?
A. COmorbidity TEst (COTE)
B. Comorbidity, airway Obstruction, Dyspnea, and previous Exacerbation (CODEx)
C. COMorbidities in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (COMCOLD)
D. Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)
1. Smith MC, Wrobel JP. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:871-888.
2. Negewo NA, Gibson PG, McDonald VM. COPD and its comorbidities: Impact, measurement and mechanisms. Respirology. 2015;20:1160-1171.
3. Hillas G, Perlikos F, Tsiligianni I, Tzanakis N. Managing comorbidities in COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:95-109.