Answer: D. All of the above. Both men and women with COPD are at increased risk for osteoporosis. Risk factors like age, smoking, systemic inflammation, decreased physical activity, and steroid therapy may increase risk for osteoporosis. Patients with COPD and osteoporosis may have more severe disease, as indicated by higher dyspnea scores, decreased 6-minute walk distance, and lower body mass index.3
1. Smith MC, Wrobel JP. Epidemiology and clinical impact of major comorbidities in patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:871-888.
2. Negewo NA, Gibson PG, McDonald VM. COPD and its comorbidities: Impact, measurement and mechanisms. Respirology. 2015;20:1160-1171.
3. Hillas G, Perlikos F, Tsiligianni I, Tzanakis N. Managing comorbidities in COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015;10:95-109.