Read the details from 3 unique cases on GI disorders: dieulafoy lesion, colovesical fistula, and intussusception.
A 61–year–old man presented to the emergency department with diffuse lower abdominal pain, nausea, and severe diarrhea (20 episodes within the past 12 hours). His symptoms began the night before and had gradually worsened. He denied fever. His medical history was significant for hypertension.
A 22-year-old woman has had chronic nausea, emesis with green vomitus, and diarrhea for the past 10 months. The diarrhea is frequent (about 3 to 8 times daily) and does not resolve with starvation.
A 52-year-old woman presented to her primary care physician complaining of a nonproductive cough and dyspnea on exertion. These symptoms had a subacute onset over 4 weeks before her initial visit. She denied fever, sputum production, hemoptysis, chest pain, palpitations, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. She did not have any known sick contacts.
Phytobezoars commonly develop in the distal small bowel, where the lumen is narrow. Prevalence is higher after partial gastric resection.
ABSTRACT: In patients with jaundice and normal liver function, the cause of hyperbilirubinemia is an isolated disorder of bilirubin metabolism. In patients with hyperbilirubinemia who have abnormal liver enzyme levels, hepatocellular disease must be differentiated from cholestatic liver injury. In general, if the cause of jaundice is global hepatocellular dysfunction, the serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels will be predominantly elevated. If the cause is cholestasis, the serum alkaline phosphatase and gγ-glutamyl peptidase levels will be elevated. In most patients, imaging studies will be needed. The initial workup should include abdominal ultrasonography, which can identify dilated intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ducts as well as findings that may suggest cirrhosis or signs of portal hypertension, including splenomegaly and ascites.
ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea; the pain is typically relieved by defecation. The diagnosis is not one of exclusion; it can be made based on the answers to a few key questions and the absence of "alarm" symptoms. Fiber therapy, the elimination of particular foods, and regulation of bowel function can help relieve symptoms. Tegaserod or polyethylene glycol can be used to treat IBS with constipation. Loperamide and alosetron are of benefit in IBS with diarrhea (although the latter carries a small risk of ischemic colitis). Low-dose tricyclic antidepressants may be used to treat the abdominal pain associated with IBS. Probiotic therapy or rifaximin may help reduce bloating. Psychological therapies seem to improve well-being in patients with IBS.
A 75-year-old woman had a 1-year history of an anal protrusion, bloodstained mucus discharge, and anal incontinence of flatus and loose stools.