Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was once considered a strictly nosocomial pathogen. Over the past decade, however, MRSA has emerged as a prominent cause of community-associated infections in both adults and children. Although community-associated MRSA strains occasionally cause severe invasive infections, they are most frequently isolated from patients with skin and soft tissue infections.
Over the past 4 decades, our understanding of the role of elevated cholesterol in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has undergone radical change. During that time, we have moved from a belief that cholesterol does not matter and that atherosclerosis is an irreversible process to a strong conviction that treating elevated cholesterol, especially elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), can slow and perhaps halt the progression of atherosclerosis. But it has been a slow process for several reasons. In the 1960s, the Framingham investigators demonstrated that elevated serum cholesterol is a risk factor for CVD.1
Together the spondyloarthropathies form a group of overlapping chronic inflammatory rheumatologic diseases that show a predilection for involvement of the axial skeleton, entheses (bony insertions of = ligaments and tendons), and peripheral joints. They also may involve extraskeletal structures, especially the eyes, lungs, skin, and GI tract.
A 55-year-old woman seen because of new lump under right side of her jaw; present for 24 hours. Associated neck discomfort causing dysphagia, and also a raspy turn to the voice; both much worse in last 12 hours. No dyspnea. No sore throat.
Given the dramatic advances in antimicrobials since penicillin was introduced, why has the mortality rate associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remained essentially unchanged?
The notoriously adaptable and increasingly common pathogen requires a new approach including routine I&D and culturing of infected tissues; the use of more-potent antibiotics, but only when needed; and a focus on hygiene in patients with recurrent infections.
Six months after testing positive for HIV in 10 bands, a 24-year-old homosexual man presented with a macular rash on his palms and soles. He first noticed the lesions 2 weeks earlier; they were not pruritic or painful. He also had a brighter, more inflamed rash in the groin and antecubital fossae that was presumed to be a yeast infection and was treated with fluconazole. He had no other symptoms.
ABSTRACT: Patients can greatly reduce the risk of traveler's diarrhea by drinking only bottled water and eating only hot foods prepared in sanitary conditions or peelable fruits and vegetables. Antibiotic prophylaxis for traveler's diarrhea is no longer routinely recommended; reserve it for patients who may have to consume food and beverages of questionable safety, those with reduced immunity, and those likely to experience serious consequences of illness. Adequate hydration is the first step in treating traveler's diarrhea. Drug therapy-loperamide or fluoroquinolones in adults and bismuth subsalicylate or azithromycin in children-can ameliorate symptoms and speed recovery. Recommend that patients who are prone to motion sickness take an antiemetic/antivertigo agent before symptoms begin. Acetazolamide can be used both to prevent and to treat altitude sickness. Contraindications to air travel include a resting oxygen saturation of less than 90%, pregnancy of more than 36 weeks' duration, pneumothorax, recent myocardial infarction or chest or abdominal surgery, active infectious diseases, and poorly controlled seizures or sickle cell anemia.
Which treatment approaches are effective in a woman who has persistent or refractory vaginal trichomoniasis? Should the male sex partner of a patient who has recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis be treated? Answers to these and other questions can be found in the recently updated CDC guidelines on managing sexually transmitted diseases
A 40-year-old African American man presented to an urban emergency department with a 1-year history of bilateral painless swelling in his neck.