MRI is now central to the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. Because of the modality’s high sensitivity to inflammation and demyelinating plaques, roughly 90% of all MS diagnoses are now based on MRI findings.
Diabetes-related complications include retinopathy, neuropathy, ulcerations.
Ulcerative colitis is primarily a mucosal disease, and other changes appear to be secondary to this process. By contrast, Crohn disease, or granulomatous colitis, involves the whole thickness of the bowel wall.
Intestinal helminthes represent one of the most prevalent types of human parasitic disease and remain a major health problem in developing countries.
Lhermitte-Duclos disease is a rare, slow-growing, benign lesion of the cerebellum and is considered a hamartomatous tumor of the cerebellar cortex.
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is common. Presenting symtpoms include hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency.
A 92-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of progressively worsening fatigue, weight loss, generalized bone pain, and dyspnea on exertion. A skeletal survey found lytic lesions in the pelvis, sacrum, and calvarium (shown here).
A 52-year-old woman presented with a 1-week history of fever; a dry, irritating cough; and chest pain. She had nonpleuritic pain in the lower left side of the chest. There was no history of hemoptysis. Respiratory system exam revealed impaired air entry at the base of the left lung.
Diagnostic colonoscopy revealed innumerable polyps carpeting the mucosa from the rectum to the cecum. Endoscopic findings and family history were most consistent with familial adenomatous polyposis.
Benign skin lesions can arise in the outer ear as easily as in any other body part frequently exposed to the sun. Seborrheic keratosis may mimic malignant melanoma but is innocuous. Actinic keratosis is premalignant and should be excised, biopsied, and the site of excision monitored vigilantly.