Find a compact sampling of 2022 research on type 2 diabetes and its treatment reviewed on Patient Care, chosen by the editorial staff.
Tirzepatide, a novel once-weekly GLP-1/GIP mimetic that binds to receptors and stimulates glucose-dependent insulin release, has shown superiority over many common antihyperglycemics.
Across the SURPASS clinical trial program, patients who received once-weekly tirzepatide 15 mg (the maximum recommended dose) achieved mean reduction in HbA1c 1.6% greater than patients taking placebo when the dual incretin agonist was used as monotherapy and 1.5% greater vs placebo when added to treatment with a long-acting insulin analog.
An investigational glucagon receptor (GCGR)/glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor co-agonist was associated with greater dose-dependent loss of body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) when compared to placebo and to the GLP-1 receptor analogue semaglutide, according to findings reported during ObesityWeek® 2022.
Julio Rosenstock, MD, and colleagues report that the GCGR/GLP-1 receptor dual agonist in a previous study reduced HbA1c in a dose-dependent manner in patients T2D receiving stable metformin therapy but not at goal. The investigators report here on dose-dependent bodyweight reductions with the GCGR/GLP-1 R dual agonist in the same cohort
Novel, once-weekly insulin icodec demonstrated superior reduction in HbA1c compared to insulin degludec in persons with T2D, according to new findings from the 6-study ONWARDS clinical development program.
The new results are from ONWARDS 2, a phase 3a, 26-week efficacy and safety treat-to-target study analyzing how well once-weekly insulin icodec controls blood sugar compared to once-daily insulin degludec in 526 participants with T2D. Results showed that from an overall baseline HbA1c of 8.13%, once-weekly insulin icodec achieved a superior reduction in estimated HbA1c of 0.93% compared to 0.71% for insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference: -0.22%).
Among patients diagnosed with T2D before age 40 years, investigators found a more than 5-fold increase in risk for both all-cause and CV mortality compared to a matched control group without T2D.
In addition to significantly increased risk for death from CV or any cause, the researchers also found that those with early-onset T2D were 7 times more likely to be hospitalized with heart failure than the matched controls.
In patients with overweight or obesity, once-weekly semaglutide 2.4 mg reduced the 10-year risk of developing T2D by approximately 60%, according to new phase 3 clinical trial findings. The risk reduction was consistent regardless of initial glycemic status and sustained treatment was required to maintain the benefit.
Semaglutide, a SGLT-2 inhibitor, combined with diet and exercise, was assessed for chronic weight management against placebo in the phase 3 STEP clinical trial program which was the foundation for the US Food and Drug Administration approval awarded for that purpose in June 2021.
Among adults with prediabetes and untreated diabetes, following a low-carbohydrate diet led to a significant decrease in hyperglycemia, fasting plasma glucose, and body weight at 6 months, according to research from investigators at Tulane University.
The study authors say the findings suggest “that a low-carbohydrate diet, if sustained, might be a useful dietary approach for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes,” but caution that additional research is needed.