Mark A. Perazella, MD



COX-2 Inhibitor Therapy: When Is Monitoring Required?

January 01, 2007

Q:Is periodic laboratory monitoring recommended for patients withosteoarthritis who are receiving long-term cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)inhibitor therapy and who have no GI or renal symptoms? Similarly,is laboratory monitoring recommended for women who take a selectiveCOX-2 inhibitor to alleviate menstrual cramps (eg, rofecoxib, 50 mg/d,3 to 5 days per month)?--Sarita Salzberg, MDColumbus, Ohio

NSAID Nephrotoxicity Revisited:Selective COX-2 Inhibitors

January 01, 2007

For over 25 years, NSAIDs have been used to treat a variety of pain syndromesand inflammatory diseases. More than 50 million Americanstake these drugs. Unfortunately, control of pain and inflammation is notachieved without an associated cost-namely, GI complications and, to a lesserextent, nephrotoxicity.In an attempt to reduce drug-related toxicity, a new class of selectiveNSAIDs-the COX-2 inhibitors-was introduced in 1999. These selectiveNSAIDs are as effective as and pose less risk of gastric toxicity than nonselectiveNSAIDs.1,2The COX-2 inhibitors are thought to reduce end-organ injury, such as GIulceration, by sparing homeostatic or “constitutive” COX-1 enzyme function.1,2 Incontrast, therapeutic effects result from the inhibition of the “inducible” COX-2enzyme.1,2 Such drug effects target the production of proinflammatory prostaglandinsby COX-2 without interrupting normal cell function mediated by COX-1.2,3

Early Renal Disease:

November 01, 2004

Until recently, practitioners focused on the timing of initiation of renal replacement therapy (dialysis) and transplantation once advanced kidney disease had developed. However, a new CKD classification system now provides an action plan for the earlier stages of the disease.