• Heart Failure
  • Cardiovascular Clinical Consult
  • Adult Immunization
  • Hepatic Disease
  • Rare Disorders
  • Pediatric Immunization
  • Implementing The Topcon Ocular Telehealth Platform
  • Weight Management
  • Monkeypox
  • Guidelines
  • Men's Health
  • Psychiatry
  • Allergy
  • Nutrition
  • Women's Health
  • Cardiology
  • Substance Use
  • Pediatrics
  • Kidney Disease
  • Genetics
  • Complimentary & Alternative Medicine
  • Dermatology
  • Endocrinology
  • Oral Medicine
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases
  • Pain
  • Gastrointestinal Disorders
  • Geriatrics
  • Infection
  • Musculoskeletal Disorders
  • Obesity
  • Rheumatology
  • Technology
  • Cancer
  • Nephrology
  • Anemia
  • Neurology
  • Pulmonology

How to Improve Outcomes in African Americans and Hispanics With Asthma


In general, asthma-related morbidity and mortality are greatest among members of ethnic minority groups who live in the inner cities; about 5000 deaths occur in these populations each year in the United States.

At least 15 million Americans have asthma.1-3 Each year, an estimated $12.7 billion is spent on health care for this chronic inflammatory disorder in the United States.4 Unnecessary emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations contribute substantially to these costs. The number of acute care visits for asthma is highest among minority children from low- income families.5

In general, asthma-related morbidity and mortality are greatest among members of ethnic minority groups who live in the inner cities; about 5000 deaths occur in these populations each year in the United States.1 Mortality is highest in African Americans between the ages of 15 and 24 years.1 In the diverse US Hispanic population, Puerto Ricans (especially those living in the Northeast) have the greatest annual asthma mortality (40.9 per million); mortality among Cuban Americans and Mexican Americans is 15.8 per million and 9.2 per million, respectively.6 Among non-Hispanic blacks, annual asthma mortality is 38.1 per million; among non-Hispanic whites, it is 14.7 per million.6

A comprehensive asthma management plan based on the latest NIH guidelines can improve outcomes in minority patients. Here we review the supporting evidence from recent clinical trials; we focus on studies that had the goal of a reduction in the number of ED visits and hospitalizations.


Many patients with asthma suffer needlessly because of inadequate care from providers,7-12 poor adherence to prescribed treatment,13 or a combination of these factors. Poorly managed asthma can result in exercise-induced bronchospasm, nocturnal awakenings, or awakening in the early morning with symp-toms. Reduced sleep quality from asthma or concurrent allergic rhinitis can affect functional status; for example, it can impair performance at school.14,15

Application of the principles of the NIH guidelines for the management of asthma is essential to improving outcomes. Attention to each of the 4 major components of long-term management is necessary to reduce the number of acute exacerbations that result in ED visits and hospitalizations (Table 1). Adequate drug therapy that is not accompanied by persistent and caring patient education is likely to fail. On the other hand, excellent patient education without individualized pharmacologic treatment and appropriate environmental control will likely result in suboptimal outcomes.

Patient education aimed at achieving a partnership in asthma care may be even more important in African Americans and Hispanics than in white populations in the United States. Include an initial 45- to 60-minute session, with much briefer sessions on subsequent visits (to reinforce initial teaching messages). This initial investment of time saves significant time and costs later. Probably the most realistic way to conduct such education is by scheduling separate small-group sessions taught by nurses, pharmacists, or respiratory therapists who have a special interest in asthma. Other aspects of caring for inner-city minority patients that need to be addressed to help ensure optimal outcomes include psychosocial issues as well as beliefs about health and medication.16-18

Key recommendations in the NIH guidelines that can help reduce the number of acute care visits and improve quality of life in all patients with asthma include:

  • Objective assessment and monitoring.
  • Anti-inflammatory therapy, with an emphasis on inhaled corticosteroids for patients with mild, moderate, or severe persistent asthma.
  • Management of "endogenous triggers," including allergic rhinitis, sinusitis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and the premenstrual phase.19
  • A written action plan that offers specific details on home as well as school management of exacerbations.1

Other strategies are listed in Table 2.

The following studies demonstrate how state-of-the-art management based on the current literature, including the NIH guidelines, can improve outcomes in patients with asthma.


Adult trials. Mayo and colleagues20 evaluated 104 patients in New York City who had at least 5 ED visits in the past 24 months or at least 2 hospitalizations in the past 12 months. Most patients in the study were Hispanic. Forty-seven patients were randomly assigned to an intensive outpatient treatment clinic; 57 continued to receive their usual long-term care. After 8 months of usual care, 19 patients with multiple hospitalizations were subsequently crossed over to the intensive-treatment group.

The intensive-treatment group received long-term asthma management consistent with the principles of the NIH guidelines. (Note that this study was conducted and published before the original NIH guidelines were released in 1991.21) The intensive management program featured:

  • Two initial visits that lasted at least 1 hour and included detailed repetitive discussion of asthma and its treatment as well as self-management techniques.
  • Tailored drug regimens that emphasized inhaled corticosteroids with a spacer device and "as-needed" short-acting inhaled β2-agonists.
  • An emergency supply of prednisone (40 mg/d for 3 days) to use based on peak expiratory flow values and severity of symptoms.
  • Repetitive education, including observation of patient's use of a metered-dose inhaler with spacer device.
  • Easy access to the clinic (with instructions to telephone or come to the clinic if asthma is not well controlled).

Results. During a 32-month follow-up period, the intensive-treatment group had a 3-fold reduction in readmissions and length of hospital stays.

In a study of 25 African Americans and whites with at least 3 ED visits for asthma in the past 12 months, Pauley and associates22 applied the principles of the NIH guidelines in an effort to reduce ED visits. After seeing the clinic physician, patients received intensive education in small groups by a clinical pharmacist.

Results. During the 6-month intervention period (December to June), the total number of ED visits was 6; during the same months 1 year earlier, the total number had been 47.

Because many inner-city indigent patients use the ED as their primary site of medical care, Kelso and colleagues23 initiated long-term intervention in the ED. In a group of 30 African Americans who had at least 5 ED visits for asthma in the past 2 years, at least 3 ED visits in the past year, or at least 2 hospitalizations in the past 2 years, clinical pharmacist investigators provided 1 hour of individual education about asthma and its treatment after the patients had responded to ED therapies. Patient education focused on the role of airway inflammation and inhaled corticosteroids, trigger avoidance, and use of inhalation devices. In addition, correct use of peak flow meters and colored-zone management were reviewed. Patient use of the devices was observed. Patients were urged to visit an asthma clinic with the same clinical pharmacist and physician investigators for follow-up visits.

Results. These patients were compared with a retrospective control group of 22 inner-city indigent patients for 1 year before and after the intervention in the ED. In addition, the number of ED visits for patients who received intervention was compared with the number of their visits during the 2 previous years. ED visits in the intervention group decreased by a mean 41%; visits in the control group did not decrease.

Kelso and associates24 also conducted a 2-year trial in middle- or low-income working adult African Americans with poorly controlled asthma (at least 5 ED visits in past 2 years or at least 2 hospitalizations in the past 2 years). The 21 patients in the intervention group received detailed education in an initial 1-hour session. Easy access to the investigators was stressed, and frequent telephone contact was made. Treatment was based on the NIH guidelines, with an emphasis on inhaled corticosteroids. Each patient was given an emergency supply of prednisone (40 mg/d for 3 days). During each clinic visit, the patient's use of the inhaler and peak flow meter was observed, and reminders were given about the importance of inhaled corticosteroids. The 18 patients in the control group received usual care.

Results. The mean number of ED visits in the intervention group decreased by 74%, compared with a 23% decrease in the control group. This change was not statistically significant. Moreover, 62% of patients who received intensive treatment had no ED visits or hospitalizations.

Pediatric trials. Greineder and coworkers25 studied 53 patients with asthma aged 1 to 17 years in an outreach program aimed at reducing ED visits and hospitalizations. Of these children and adolescents, 70% were African American.

Patients received an initial 1- to 2-hour individual instruction session about asthma and its treatment, triggers, and use of inhalers as well as peak flow meters. Drug therapy was tailored for each patient according to NIH guidelines.11 A key feature of this program was that the study outreach nurse telephoned families weekly during the early part of the trial to ensure that appointments were kept. This continuing contact established a rapport and was important in the study's success.

Results. The number of ED visits and hospitalizations was tracked for 6 to 24 months after the intervention and compared with the number during an equal time before the study. In the intervention group, ED visits were reduced by 79% and hospital admissions by 86%.

In a follow-up study, Greineder and coworkers26 randomized 57 patients to a usual-care group or to an intervention group after a single intensive asthma education session. Both groups received drug therapy recommended in the NIH guidelines.11 The intervention group also received consistent follow-up from the study outreach nurse as in the earlier study.25

Results. ED visits and hospitalizations were compared for 1 year before and 1 year after the study. The intervention group had greater reductions in ED visits (73%) and hospitalizations (84%). Estimated cost savings ranged from $7.69 to $11.67 for every dollar spent on the outreach nurse's salary.

In a study of children aged 2 to 16 years who were enrolled in Medicaid, an asthma outreach nurse maintained monthly contact for 1 year with the 38 patients in the intervention group after extensive individual asthma education and treatment based on the NIH guidelines.27

Results. Mean ED visits decreased 51% in the intervention group (significantly more than in the control group). Average asthma health care costs per year were reduced by $721 per child in the intervention group and by $178 per child in the control group.

A study by Stout and associates28 included home visits by community-based lay workers who collaborated with a pediatrician, pharmacist, and public health nurse. Twenty-three children (87% African American) were evaluated for 1 year before and after the intervention. Initial intervention included asthma evaluation and treatment by a physician, pharmacist review of medication use, peak expiratory flow assessment, and training in inhalation devices. After the study nurse trained the lay outreach worker, patients were visited at least monthly for the first 6 months of the program and then at least quarterly. The outreach workers reinforced the comprehensive asthma management plan, including environmental control.

Results. There were 20 ED visits the year before study enrollment, and only 7 in the year after the intervention. The families indicated that while they trusted the investigators who were health professionals, they felt more comfortable sharing information and concerns with the lay outreach workers. Other studies have also used community health workers.29


George and colleagues30 assessed the effect of a comprehensive educational program on outcomes in 77 adults with asthma. Following hospitalization for asthma, patients were randomized to comprehensive or usual care at a university asthma clinic.

Results. During the next 6 months, there was a total of 3 ED visits among patients who received comprehensive care (compared with 27 during the 6 months before the intervention) and a total of 15 ED visits in the usual-care group (compared with 17 during the previous 6 months).

McGill and associates31 evaluated the effect of an educational and therapeutic intervention program in children enrolled in Head Start. The study used clinical pharmacist asthma counselors, and interventions were done in partnership with the child's physician and Head Start personnel. The intervention consisted of personalized management skill training, development of an asthma treatment plan, and family empowerment to use health care resources.

Results. Intervention resulted in a 66% reduction in ED visits.

A very recent study evaluated inner-city elementary schoolchildren with asthma who have access to school-based health centers.32

Results. Access to such centers may reduce hospitalization rates and missed school days.


REFERENCES:1.Expert Panel Report II. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 1997. NIH publication 97-4051.
2. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. Expert Panel Report. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma-Update on Selected Topics 2002. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 2002. NIH publication 02-5075. (Also pub-lished in: J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110[suppl 5]:S141-S219.) Available at: www.nhlbi.nih.gov/ guidelines/asthma/index.htm.
3. Global Initiative for Asthma.Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 2002. NIH publication 02-3659. Available at: www.ginasthma.com/ workshop.pdf. Accessed September 15, 2003.
4.Weiss KB, Sullivan SD. The health economics of asthma and rhinitis, I: assessing the economic impact. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;107:3-8.
5. Lazano P, Connell FA, Koepsell TD. Use of health services by African American children with asthma on Medicaid. JAMA. 1995;274:469-473.
6. Homa DM, Mannino DM, Lara M. Asthma mortality in US Hispanics of Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Cuban heritage, 1990-1995. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;161:504-509.
7. Hartert TV, Windom HH, Peebles RS Jr, et al. Inadequate outpatient medical therapy for patients with asthma admitted to two urban hospitals. Am J Med. 1996;100:386-394.
8. Legorreta AP, Christian-Herman J, O'Connor RD, et al. Compliance with national asthma management guidelines and specialty care. Arch Intern Med. 1998;158:457-464.
9. Krishman JA, Diette GB, Skinner EA, et al. Race and sex differences in consistency of care with national asthma guidelines in managed care organizations. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161:1660-1668.
10. Finkelstein JA, Lozano P, Farber HJ, et al. Underuse of controller medications among Medicaid-insured children with asthma. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002;156:562-567.
11. Adams RJ, Fuhlbrigge A, Guilbert T, et al. Inadequate use of asthma medication in the United States: results of the Asthma in America national population survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002; 110:58-64.
12. Shireman TI, Heaton PC, Gay WE, et al. Relationship between asthma drug therapy patterns and healthcare utilization. Ann Pharmacother. 2002;36: 557-564.
13. Milgrom H, Bender B, Ackerson L, et al. Noncompliance and treatment failure in children with asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1996;98:1051-1057.
14. Mahajan P, Pearlman K, Okamoto L. The effect of fluticasone propionate on functional status and sleep in children with asthma and on the quality of life of their parents. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998; 102:19-23.
15. Craig TJ, Teets S, Lehman EB, et al. Nasal congestion secondary to allergic rhinitis as a cause of sleep disturbance and daytime fatigue and the response to topical nasal corticosteroids. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1998;101:633-637.
16. Mansour ME, Lanphear BP, DeWitt TG. Barriers to asthma care in urban children: parent perspectives. Pediatrics. 2000;106:512-519.
17. Weil CM, Wade SL, Bauman LJ, et al. The relationship between psychosocial factors and asthma morbidity in inner-city children with asthma. Pediatrics. 1999;104:1274-1280.
18. Beausoleil JL, Weldon DP, McGeady SJ. Beta 2-agonist metered dose inhaler overuse: psychological and demographic profiles. Pediatrics. 1997;99:40-43.
19. Skobeloff EM, Spivey WH, Silverman R, et al. The effect of the menstrual cycle on asthma presentations in the emergency department. Arch Intern Med. 1996;156:1837-1840.
20. Mayo PH, Richman J, Harris HW. Results of a program to reduce admissions for adult asthma. Ann Intern Med. 1990;112:864-871.
21.Expert Panel Report. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Asthma. Bethesda, Md: National Institutes of Health; 1991. NIH publication 91-3042.
22. Pauley TR, Magee MJ, Cury JD. Pharmacist-managed, physician-directed asthma management program reduces emergency department visits. Ann Pharmacother. 1995;29:5-9.
23. Kelso TM, Self TH, Rumbak MJ, et al. Educational and long-term therapeutic intervention in the ED: effect on outcomes in adult indigent minority asthmatics. Am J Emerg Med. 1995;13:632-637.
24. Kelso TM, Abou-Shala N, Heilker GM, et al. Comprehensive long-term management program for asthma: effect on outcomes in adult African Americans. Am J Med Sci. 1996;311:272-280.
25. Greineder DK, Loane KC, Parks P. Reduction in resource utilization by an asthma outreach program. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1995;149:415-420.
26. Greineder DK, Loane KC, Parks P. A randomized controlled trial of a pediatric asthma outreach program. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103:436-440.
27. Kelly CS, Morrow AL, Shults J, et al. Outcomes evaluation of a comprehensive intervention program for asthmatic children enrolled in Medicaid. Pediatrics. 2000;105:1029-1035.
28. Stout JW, White LC, Rogers LT, et al. The Asthma Outreach Project: a promising approach to comprehensive asthma management. J Asthma. 1998;35:119-127.
29. Butz AM, Malveaux FJ, Eggleston P, et al. Use of community health workers with inner-city children who have asthma. Clin Pediatr. 1994;33: 135-141.
30. George MR, O'Dowd LC, Martin I, et al. A comprehensive educational program improves clinical outcome measures in inner-city patients with asthma. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159:1710-1716.
31. McGill KA, Sorkness CA, Decker CA, et al. Improved asthma outcomes in Head Start children using pharmacist asthma counselors. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997;155:A202. Abstract.
32. Webber MP, Carpiniello KE, Oruwaiye T, et al. Burden of asthma in inner-city elementary schoolchildren: do school-based health centers make a difference? Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:125-129.

Related Videos
Tezepelumab Significantly Reduced Exacerbations in Patients with Severe Asthma, Respiratory Comorbidities
© 2024 MJH Life Sciences

All rights reserved.