Gary S. Francis, MD


Chronic Heart Failure:10 Questions Physicians Often Ask

May 01, 2002

The past several years have witnessedimportant advances in the evaluationand management of chronic heart failure(HF). Drugs such as β-blockersand spironolactone have been shownto reduce morbidity and mortality, andstrategies that employ new devices,such as pacing and defibrillator therapy,are evolving. This has promptedthe American College of Cardiology(ACC)/American Heart Association(AHA) to update guidelines first publishedin 1995.1 The guidelines highlightthe importance of early and accuraterecognition of the clinical syndromeof chronic HF and offer anoutline for evidence-based therapeuticdecision making.