A 3-year-old girl is brought to the office because of a1-week history of hematuria and dysuria. Her motherhad noticed bright red blood in the child’s urine anddiaper. The child did not have dysuria initially but latercomplained of a burning sensation.
A 2-month history of cough sent a 62-year-old woman for medical evaluation. The patient denied fever, chills, and rigors but reported seeing streaks of blood in her sputum during the past month. The patient had undergone a right nephrectomy 4 years earlier for renal cell carcinoma.
An 85-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a cough and shortness of breath of 1 week's duration and a fever and increased sputum production for 2 days. His history included renal cell carcinoma and metastatic renal cancer for 2 years. The patient had smoked cigarettes for 30 years. He had lost 30 lb during the last few months.