What tips can you give your patients to help them lead a healthier lifestyle? Click through this quick slideshow to find out.
Former FDA Chief David Kessler, MD, was recently interviewed during The Washington Post's Health 202 Newsletter where he stated, "We have failed in giving nutritional advice to people." According to Kessler, with processed and fast foods being a popular source of nutrition, the US population is not getting the right information about which foods are actually healthy. So, what tips can primary care physicians give patients to aid in weight loss and help promote a healthier lifestyle? Click through the slideshow above to find out.
The Obesity Problem in the US. Estimates show that two-thirds of Americans are carrying excess weight, and more than half of those are obese. A modest 5% reduction in body weight has been shown to have a positive impact on certain cardiometabolic parameters, including significant decreases in plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, alanine transaminase, and leptin that continued to improve in linear fashion with further weight loss.3
Key Steps for Treating Overweight/Obese Patients. The 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults provides a detailed algorithm of the guidelines along with explanations of each step.4
Problems with Composition of US Diet. The current US diet is substantially out of balance with USDA recommendations for healthy, nutrient-rich foods.5 Excess calorie consumption is largely from processed and fast foods that are low in nutritional value, resulting in weight gain. Many people fail to consume enough of specific nutrients through dietary sources, including potassium, calcium, dietary fiber, choline, magnesium, and vitamins A, D, E, and C.
Suggested Food Choices for Weight Loss. The USDA Dietary Guidelines for 2015-2020 recommends patients focus on consuming a balanced mix of high-quality, nutrient-dense foods, within appropriate calorie ranges.6
More Tips to Help Patients Make Better Food Choices:
Clinicians Role Key to Support Weight Loss Intentions. Behavior modification strategies are important to achieving and maintaining weight loss for any patient, although the issues vary with each individual. The US Preventive Services Task Force in 2012 recommended an intensive multicomponent behavioral intervention program for patients identified as overweight or obese. Those recommendations are still the mainstays of weight loss management.7,8
Referrals for Dietary Assistance. Some features can be effectively managed at the primary care level with referrals, including commercial weight loss programs, community-based obesity specialists, or online weight-loss programs for monitoring and educational support. Of the most successful commercial programs evaluated (as compared to control/education or counseling), Weight Watchers® showed 2.6% greater weight loss and Jenny Craig® produced 4.9% greater weight loss over 12 months. Nutrisystem® resulted in at least 3.8% greater weight loss over 3 months vs controls.9
1. Transcript: The Health 202 Live [transcript]. The Health 202 Live. The Washington Post. June 21, 2018.
2. Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999-2008. JAMA. 2010;303:235-241.
3. Magkos F, Fraterrigo G, Yoshino J, et al. Effects of moderate and subsequent progressive weight loss on metabolic function and adipose tissue biology in humans with obesity. Cell Metab. 2016;23:591–601.
4. Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the obesity society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63:2985-3023.
5. United States Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Chapter 1. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/chapter-1/. Accessed August 8, 2018.
6. United States Department of Agriculture. 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans Chapter 2. https://health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015/guidelines/chapter-2/. Accessed August 8, 2018.
7. Moyer VA, U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Screening for and management of obesity in adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157:373–378.
8. Carvajal R, Wadden TA, Tsai AG, Peck K, Moran CH. Managing obesity in primary care practice: a narrative review. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2013;1281:191-206.
9. Gudzune, KA, Doshi RS, Mehta AK, et al. Efficacy of commercial weight loss programs: an updated systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2015;162:501–512.