SGLT2 Inhibitors and Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials: 4 Questions

September 2, 2020
Veronica Hackethal, MD

Refresh your memory on findings from the EMPA-REG OUTCOME, CANVAS, CREDENCE, and DECLARE-TIMI cardiovascular outcomes trials on SGLT2 inhibitors.

Cardiovascular (CV) outcomes trials have generally shown that sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) decrease CV risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Major CV outcomes randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for this class of drugs include:

  • EMPA-REG OUTCOME: 7020 participants with T2DM at high CV risk randomized to empagliflozin or placebo; median follow-up of 3.1 years
  • DECLARE-TIMI: 17 160 participants with T2DM at high CV risk randomized to dapagliflozin or placebo; median follow-up of 4.2 years
  • CREDENCE: 4401 participants with T2DM and chronic kidney disease randomized to canagliflozin or placebo; median follow-up of 2.62 years
  • CANVAS: 10 142 participants with T2DM at high CV risk randomized to canagliflozin or placebo; median follow-up of 3.6 years

Test your knowledge on the 4 major CV outcomes RCTs for SGLT2i with the 8-question quiz below.


1. Which trial failed to find significantly decreased 3-point major adverse CV events (MACE) in patients with T2DM?

A. EMPA-REG OUTCOME
B. DECLARE-TIMI
C. CANVAS
D. CREDENCE